Classification of Model of Teaching
• What is the Model of Teaching?
The teaching model is considered to be the primitive form of teaching theory. Teaching models serve as hypotheses for the formulation of teaching principles. The use of teaching models makes teaching effective and interesting, as they are developed on the basis of learning principles.
In every teaching model, such situations are created in which effective interaction between teacher and student can take place and the objective can be achieved through behavioral change of the students. In the teaching model, the goal of teaching, the interrelationship of various activities of teaching and learning is explained.
• Characteristics of Model of Teaching
1. Every teaching model is based on some verified principle. Therefore, their nature is scientific.
2. Each teaching model has sequential steps that can be repeated exactly.
3. Each teaching model has clearly defined learning implications.
4. In each teaching model, the tasks and responsibilities of teaching and students are defined.
5. The teaching model is student centered.
6. Some necessary aids are required for the use of the teaching model.
7. The teaching model answers each of the fundamental questions related to teacher and student behaviour, such as how should a teacher behave? What effect will this behavior have on the students etc.
8. Teaching models are designed according to the individual variation of the students.
9. Each teaching model creates a special type of environment for the achievement of specific objectives and determines the teacher-student interaction.
10. The teaching model enhances the teaching efficiency of the teacher.
11. Each teaching model has a specific assessment system.
• Elements of Model of Teaching
3. Social System
4. Principle Check
5. Auxiliary system
• Classification of Model of Teaching
1. Philosophical Teaching Model
Based on the nature and characteristics of teaching, Israel Sefler has described three models under the philosophical teaching model. He believes that teaching includes cognitive, psychological and universal elements.
I. Impression Model
II. Insight Model
III. Rule Model
2. Psychological Teaching Model
John. P. Dececco gave four psychological teaching models.
I. Basic Teaching Model
II. Interaction Teaching Model
III. Computer Based Teaching Model
IV. School Learning Teaching Model
3. Teacher Education Teaching Model
E. E. Hayden discussed 4 teacher education teaching models which are helpful in solving the problems of teacher education.
I. Taba Teaching Model
II. Turner's Teaching Model
III. Teacher Orientation Teaching Model
IV. Fox Lippit Teaching Model
4. Modern Teaching Model
Keeping in view the learning objectives to be achieved by the teaching model, Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil in their book 'Model of Teaching' have classified the teaching models into 4 groups under the title Modern Teaching Models. Patterns are ranked on the basis of similarity of objectives in each group.
1. Information Processing Model
A person receives information received from various sources in his environment and organizes it in his brain, then these information is analyzed in the brain and the ability which is needed at the time of analysis is called cognitive process.
Due to these abilities, the child is able to move away from information and create abstract and useful knowledge. This process is called information processing.
The models that fall in this group are as follows -
I. Concept Attainment
Promoter – Jay Brunner
I. Inductive Logic
II. Concept attainment
III. Development of analytical ability
2. Inquiry Training Model
Promoter - Richard Sachman
I. Training of the search process
II. To develop the ability to formulate theory.
3. Inductive Thinking Teaching Model
Promoter - Hilda Taba
Objective - Developing inductive reasoning and pedagogical reasoning.
4. Biological Science Inquiry Model
Promoter - Joseph J Schwab
I. Teaching of research methods.
II. For social understanding and solution of social problem.
III. For the teaching of social science methods related.
5. Cognitive Growth Model
Promoter – Jean Piaget, Irving Singel
I. normal mental development.
II. Logical thinking.
III. Social and moral development.
6. Advance Organization Model
Promoter - David J. asubel
Objective - To acquire and organize knowledge and develop the ability to process information.
7. Memory Model
Promoter – HarryLoren, Jerry Lucasi
Objective - To develop the ability to remember.
3. Social Interaction Model
Under the social interaction model, students are given the opportunity to interact with other students, which develops social skills in them. These social skills help the individual to establish social adjustment. The following models come in this group -
I. Group Investigation - Promoter - Herbert Thielen, John Dewey.
II. Laboratory Method - Promoter - National Training Laboratory, Bethel Main.
III. Social Inquiry - Promoters - Byron Massiels, Benjamin Cox.
IV. Role Playing - Promoter - Fanny Shaftel, George Shaftel.
V. Social Structure - Promoters - Sauron Bukok, Harold Gage Cove.
VI. Juris Prudential Inquiry - Promoter - Donald Oliver, James P. Shaver.
4. Personal Model
The purpose of personal models is to help the individual develop himself according to his abilities. Through this model, more emphasis is laid on the emotional side of the individual, as a result of which the ability of the individual to establish proper relationship with his environment can be developed.
Along with this, the person becomes capable of establishing proper relations with other people and in the process of information processing. The following models come in this group -
I. Awareness Training - Promoter - Fritz Paris, William Schutz.
II. Non-Directive Learning - Promoter - Carl Rogers
III. Synectics - Promoter - William J J Gordon
IV. Classroom Meeting - Promoter - William Glaser
V. Conceptual Method - Promoter - David Hunt
5. Behavioural Model
The main aim of all the models in this group is to bring about changes in the visual behaviors of the learner and not in the underlying psychological structures and behaviours. These models present reinforcers by controlling the stimuli.
Desirable behaviors are trained using reinforcers, which convert normal behaviors into specific types of behaviors. The following models come in this group -
I. Contingency Arrangement - Promoter - B. F. skinner
II. Self Control - Promoter - B. F. skinner
III. languor - Promoter - Reem & Masters Volp
IV. Pressure Reduction - Promoter - Reem & Masters Volp
V. Installation Training - Promoter - Volp, Lazarum Salter
VI. Intermittent Training - Promoters - Gayane, Smith & Smith
• Utility of Model of Teaching
1. Teaching model is helpful in making teaching effective.
2. Such teaching strategies and techniques are used in the teaching model which are helpful in changing the behavior of the student.
3. The teaching model specifies the teaching field.
4. The teaching model is used to develop instructional material.
5. Teaching models are helpful in designing the curriculum.
6. The teaching model is used to evaluate the behavior of the students.
7. The teacher-student action is made effective by the teaching model.
8. Teaching models are helpful in selecting those stimulating situations which can produce the desired behavioral changes in the students.
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