Learning : Meaning And Definitions | Features of Learning
• Meaning of Learning in Psychology
Learning has an important place in life. Learning is a lifelong process. When the child comes in contact with his environment after birth, he reacts with the environment. During this he gains new experiences.
Learning is an active response to a situation. We are going with mangoes in our hands, when a hungry monkey catches sight of it, he snatches the mango from our hands. This is the monkey's response to mango when it is hungry, but it is a natural reaction, not a learned one. On the contrary, when a child sees a mango in our hand, he does not snatch it, but asks for it with outstretched hands. This reaction of the child towards mango is not natural, but learned.
Shortly after birth, he gets to learn something or the other from his environment. Seeing the fire for the first time, he can touch it and gets burnt, as a result he has a new experience. So when he sees the fire again his reaction to it is different. Experience has taught him not to touch the fire. So he stays away from fire. Thus 'learning is the change in behavior through experience'.
There are two major factors in the learning process, first - maturity, second - experience. Maturity plays an important role in the learning process. Maturity develops with age. In the absence of the necessary physical and mental maturity to learn a task, a person is not able to learn it properly.
Maturity meaning to the attitude and development that is required before learning a particular type of behaviour. These new experiences that the child receives either formally or informally, i.e. from the environment, play a major role in his behavior change. Learning is the change in behavior through experience. Taking advantage of his experiences, adopts eco-friendly and responses.
According to Gaine, there are three main elements of learning :
1. learning creature learner
2. Provocative situations and
• Definitions of Learning
The definitions of learning according to various psychologists is as follows :
* According to Gates, “Learning is the change in behavior through experience”.
* According to Skinner, “Learning is the process of acquiring progressive behaviour”.
* According to Woodworth, “This action can be called learning, in so far as it develops the individual in some way, good or bad, and makes his experiences and environment different from before.”
* According to Woolworth, "learning is a process of development" .
* According to Guilford, “We can define the term broadly by saying that learning is any change in behavior as a result of behaviour.”
* According to Peel, “Learning is a change in the individual following the changes in his environment.”
* According to Crow and Crow, "Learning is the acquisition of knowledge and expression."
* According to Meyer, “Learning is a permanent change in the knowledge and behavior of an individual through experience and practice”.
* According to Crow and Crow, “Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes. It refers to a progressive change in behavior and enables the individual to achieve a purpose.”
* According to Woodworth, “Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge and responses.”
* According to Guilford, “Learning is the change in behavior”.
* According to BF Skinner, “Learning is the process of progressive adjustment of behaviour”.
• Features of Learning
The features of learning are as follows :
1. Learning means acquiring new experiences.
2. Learning is universal.
3. Learning is a change in behavior. (according to Guilford)
4. Learning depends on practice and experience.
5. Learning is a lifelong process.
6. Learning is directed by purpose.
7. Learning takes place in both formal and informal situations.
8. Learning establishes new relationships between stimulus and response.
9. Learning takes place both accidentally and pre-planned.
10. Transfer of learning can happen.
11. Learning prepares the individual for any necessary adjustments and adaptations.
12. Learning behaviors are not included which are due to maturity, fatigue, illness or any other addictive drug etc.
13. Learning is a problem solving process. Learning begins with a problem and continues till its solution.
14. Learning is also a self-directed process.
15. Learning is multidimensional. The learning process has many dimensions. E.g. Attitudes, Emotional, Motor etc.
16. Learning is a process. Learning is not production in itself. Rather, it results in production, which is called behavior.
17. Learning is related to human needs. He is the learner to fulfill the needs.
18. Learning is progressively increased through practice.
19. Learning can be both right and wrong. Therefore care should be taken that the learning is socially acceptable.
20. Learning also involves the action of discovery. A person is inquisitive from birth. He tries to learn new facts, phenomena and processes. After acquiring the information of new facts, his search process is completed.
21. Learning is a change in behavior. (According to Guildford)
22. Learning is do something new. Woodworth made a condition that learning is do a new task only when the task is repeated and manifested in other tasks.
23. Learning is a lifelong process.
24. Learning helps in to conducive environment.
25. Learning is intelligence.
26. Learning is universal.
27. Learning is purposeful.
According to Mursell, the cause of learning failures is the failures of understanding.
28. Learning is a product of environment.
29. Learning is both individual and social.
30. Learning is the organization of experiences. Learning is neither the acquisition of new experiences nor the summation of old experiences, but the organization of new and old experiences.
In fact, learning means change in behavior as a result of experience. That is, it is the process by which a person acquires a new model of behavior as a result of his interaction in a situation. which affects the model of his normal behavior. Kuppuswamy believes so.
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